new bulbs

Over in Sweden, Czech, Italy, and Belgium, Ikea is launching a new line of ‘smart’ light bulbs. These countries are apparently the test market for these bulbs, and they’ll soon be landing on American shores. This means smart Ikea bulbs will be everywhere soon, and an Internet of Light Bulbs is a neat thing to explore. [Markus] got his hands on a few of these bulbs, and is now digging into their inner workings (German Make Magazine, with a Google Translate that includes the phrase, ‘capering the pear’).

There are currently four versions of these Ikea bulbs, ranging from a 400 lumen bulb designed for track lights to a 980 lumen bulb that will probably work in an American Edison lamp socket. These lights are controlled via a remote, with each individual bulb paired to the remote by turning the lamp on, holding the remote close to the bulb, and pressing a button.

Inside these bulbs is a Silicon Labs microcontroller with ZigBee support, twelve chip LEDs, and associated electronics that look like they might pass the bigclivedotcom smoke test. After tearing apart this bulb and planting the wireless module firmly in a breadboard, [Markus] found he could dim a pair of LEDs simply by clicking on the remote. Somewhere in these bulbs, there’s a possibility of doing something.

As with all Internet of Things, we must ask an important question: will it become part of Skynet and shut down the Internet, like webcams did last summer? These Ikea bulbs look pretty safe in that regard, as the bulb is inexorably tied to the remote and must be paired by holding it close to the bulb. We’re sure there are a few more interesting exploits for these bulbs, so once they’re released in the US we’ll take a look at them.



Engineering geology is the application of the geologicalsciences to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineeringworks are recognized and accounted for….


Engineering Geology is an international interdisciplinary journal bridging the fields of the earth sciences and engineering, particularly geological and geotechnical engineering. The focus of the journal is on geological or engineering studies that are of interest to engineering geologists, whether their initial training is in geology or civil/mining engineering. The studies published in this journal must show relevance to engineering, environmental concerns, and safety.

Sample topics of interest include but are not limited to applied geomorphology and structural geology, applied geophysics and geochemistry, environmental geology and hydrogeology, land use planning, natural hazards, remote sensing techniques, soil and rock mechanics and applied geotechnical engineering.

Paper types considered are original research articles, case histories, and comprehensive reviews. Case studies, in particular, should emphasize why the paper is of interest to the international readership of this journal, and/or what new or novel research or theoretical methods are being presented.

The journal is intended for academic scientists, industry and applied researchers, and policy and decision makers.

Engineering Geology is the application of the science of geology to the understanding of geologic phenomena and the engineering solution of geologic hazards and other geologic problems for society.




A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium. Some diodes are comprised of metal electrodes in a chamber evacuated or filled with a pure elemental gas at low pressure. Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators.

The fundamental property of a diode is its tendency to conduct electric current in only one direction. When the cathode is negatively charged relative to the anode at a voltage greater than a certain minimum called forward breakover, then current flows through the diode. If the cathode is positive with respect to the anode, is at the same voltage as the anode, or is negative by an amount less than the forward breakover voltage, then the diode does not conduct current. This is a simplistic view, but is true for diodes operating as rectifiers, switches, and limiters. The forward breakover voltage is approximately six tenths of a volt (0.6 V) for silicon devices, 0.3 V for germanium devices, and 1 V for selenium devices.

The above general rule notwithstanding, if the cathode voltage is positive relative to the anode voltage by a great enough amount, the diode will conduct current. The voltage required to produce this phenomenon, known as the avalanche voltage, varies greatly depending on the nature of the semiconductor material from which the device is fabricated. The avalanche voltage can range from a few volts up to several hundred volts.

When an analog signal passes through a diode operating at or near its forward breakover point, the signal waveform is distorted. This nonlinearity allows for modulation, demodulation, and signal mixing. In addition, signals are generated at harmonics, or integral multiples of the input frequency. Some diodes also have a characteristic that is imprecisely termed negative resistance. Diodes of this type, with the application of a voltage at the correct level and the polarity, generate analog signals at microwave radio frequencies.

Semiconductor diodes can be designed to produce direct current (DC) when visible light, infrared transmission (IR), or ultraviolet (UV) energy strikes them. These diodes are known as photovoltaic cells and are the basis for solar electric energy systems and photosensors. Yet another form of diode, commonly used in electronic and computer equipment, emits visible light or IR energy when current passes through it. Such a device is the familiar light-emitting diode (LED).diode


Engineering physics or Engineering Science refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics and combined with engineering studies in computer, electrical, materials or mechanical engineering.

Engineering physics or Engineering Science refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics and combined with engineering studies in computer, electrical, materials or mechanical engineering. By focusing on the scientific method as a rigorous basis, it seeks ways to apply and develop new solutions in engineering. Engineering physics or engineering science degrees are respected academic degrees awarded in many countries. It can be taught at the undergraduate level and is often designed as an honors program at some universities due to the rigorous nature of the academic curriculum which covers a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines



hope it wil help you for your studies 🙂

engineering applied mechanics


This tutorial will be broken up into three parts that will help you understand how to find the important parts required to perform a simple beam analysis. It will teach you how to find and draw bending moment diagrams, shear force diagrams and the reactions of simple beams. These are very important tools and skills for an engineer to have, and are a very integral part of your undergraduate college degree program. It is important to take your time to go through these simple tutorials and steps to calculate these important diagrams. Click on one of the options below:

  1. What is a Bending Moment
  2. Reaction Forces at Supports
  3. Shear Force Diagrams
  4. Bending Moment Diagrams
  5. Calculating Bending Stress
  6. Bending Moment Equations

These are very simplified steps that can be followed for all determinant beams. These questions are very common in final engineering exams for university degrees, particularly mechanics of solids and structural subjects. So again, it is important to take your time with these bending moment diagram tutorials, to gain a useful understanding of these concepts.

Truss Tutorials
The following tutorials will explain how to solve truss problems from start to finish through a simple determinant truss system:

  1. Solving a Truss by Method of Joints
  2. Method of Sections

Beam Section Tutorials
When the section of a beam is involved the centroid (or center of mass) and moment of inertia are usually the most important properties of the beam which need to be considered:

  1. Centroid of a Beam Section
  2. Moment of Inertia of a Beam Section.
  3. Calculating the Statical Moment of Area of a Beam Section (First Moment of Area)

here its pdf …..